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From Outlays to Outcomes

Avani Kapur , Saamia Ibrahim

In 2012, the Government of India rechristened the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA), this was accompanied by a significant increase in allocations.

The launch of the NBA has reignited the debate on a more outcomes focused delivery model for rural sanitation. However, this move comes in the wake of Census 2011 findings that only 30.7 percent of rural households in India have access to any toilets. In contrast, the TSC’s own data reported achievement rates of close to 80 percent.

This raises some important questions regarding the current planning and budgeting structures for sanitation delivery.

Through a detailed analysis of Government of India (GOI) planning and budgeting documents, and analysis of the online monitoring system, this report focuses on the data from TSC in order to identify implementation challenges and lessons that can be learnt for the NBA.

Further, the report undertakes a comparison of Census 2011 data on rural sanitation with the online monitoring system of TSC to understand the reasons for the differences and also estimate the additional funds required to achieve universal coverage of household toilets.

This research was carried out for the State of Sanitation Project. The project was supported by Arghyam.

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