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Regulation of Non-State Actors in School Education in India

Kiran Bhatty, Mridusmita Bordoloi, Avani Kapur, Mohammad Hamza & Anupriya Singh
(2022)

First published as background paper prepared for the Global Education Monitoring Report on Non-state actors in Education –South Asia, available here.
The complete report can be accessed here.

Non-state engagement in education in India now extends not just to schools and supplementary services but to policy intervention as well. As education is still regarded as a public service and the Constitution of India clarifies that it must be treated as a ‘charity’ and not as a commercial enterprise, regulation of non-state provision emerges as a crucial activity.

However, India lacks an overarching regulatory structure and framework. In its absence, rules are made on an ad hoc basis within different government structures (both national and state) for entry and exit of non-state providers and in some instances for their operational procedures as well.

This paper examines non-state provisioning of education in India – at the level of schools and of supplementary services – particularly from the lens of regulations that exist and the extent to which they are being applied.

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