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In a Glance: India’s Major Welfare Programmes

Accountability Initiative Staff

23 February 2021

Through this blog, we give you a basic overview of India’s major welfare programmes.

 

Ayushman Bharat

  • Launched in September 2018 under the aegis of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW)
  • Consists of two initiatives: (1) The Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PMJAY); and 2) The establishment of 1.5 lakh Health and Wellness Centres
  • PMJAY is a health insurance scheme aimed at providing access to inpatient secondary and tertiary care to poor and vulnerable families and reducing out-of-pocket health expenditures
  • The Health and Wellness Centre initiative aims to transform 1.5 lakh Sub Health Centres and Primary Health Centres– the first point of contact to primary healthcare – to Health and Wellness Centres by 2022

Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS)

  • Government of India’s flagship programme for early child development, aiming to improve the nutritional and health status of children aged 0 to 6 years, pregnant and nursing women
  • Aims to reduce the incidence of mortality, morbidity, malnutrition, and school dropout, as well as enhance the capability of mothers to look after the health and nutritional needs of their child
  • Launched in 1975 in 33 districts and universalised in 2005
  • Implemented by the Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD) and the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW)
  • In Financial Year 2021-22, Government of India restructured ICDS and POSHAN Abhiyaan into Saksham Anganwadi and POSHAN 2.0. This consists of the following sub-schemes: The erstwhile ICDS; POSHAN Abhiyaan; Scheme for Adolescent Girls; and National Creche Scheme

Jal Jeevan Mission

  • Government of India’s flagship rural drinking water supply scheme
  • It subsumes the previous National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP)
  • Aims to provide functional tap connections to every rural household for drinking, cooking, and other domestic needs on a sustainable basis by 2024
  • Implemented by the Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation (DDWS) under the Ministry of Jal Shakti (MJS)

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS)

  • Government of India’s flagship scheme to provide at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every rural household that demands work
  • Launched in 2006 following the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005
  • Largest scheme of the Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD)

Mid-Day Meal Scheme

  • Government of India’s flagship school-based feeding programme aimed at improving the nutritional status of students and promoting the universalisation of elementary education
  • Launched as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) on 15th August 1995
  • Focusses on enhancing enrolment, retention and attendance of children while simultaneously improving nutritional levels
  • Run by the Ministry of Education (MoE), erstwhile Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD)

National Health Mission (NHM)

  • Government of India’s largest public health programme
  • Aims at achieving universal access to health care by strengthening health systems, institutions and capabilities
  • Consists of two sub-missions: National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), and National Urban Health Mission (NUHM)
  • Launched in May 2013
  • Implemented by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW)

Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY)

  • Government of India’s maternity benefit scheme providing conditional cash transfers to pregnant women and lactating mothers for the first live birth
  • At the national level, the scheme is implemented by the Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD)
  • At the state level, the scheme is to use the Anganwadi Centre (AWC) platform under the Women and Child Department or Social Justice Department

Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana – Gramin (PMAY – G)

  • Government of India’s flagship ‘Housing for All’ scheme
  • Aims to provide monetary assistance for the construction of a pucca house with basic amenities for all rural houseless families, and those living in dilapidated and kutcha houses by 2022
  • Launched in November 2016 after restructuring the Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY), a rural housing scheme started in 1996
  • Run by the Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD)

POSHAN Abhiyaan

  • Government of India’s flagship programme that aims to holistically address the prevalence of malnutrition in India through the use of technology, convergence, behavioural change, training, and capacity building
  • Earlier known as the National Nutrition Mission, it was launched in March 2018
  • Aims to improve nutritional outcomes in a phased manner
  • Also targets indicators such as stunting, underweight and low birth weight prevalence, and anaemia among women and children
  • Implemented by the Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD)
  • From FY 2021-22, POSHAN Abhiyaan has been restructured and combined with the Integrated Child Development Services to form Saksham Anganwadi and POSHAN 2.0.

Pradhan Mantri KIsan SAmman Nidhi (PM-KISAN)

  • Income support scheme in which small and marginal farmers get up to Rs. 6,000 per year to supplement their financial needs
  • Supplements farmers’ financial needs to secure proper crop health and appropriate yields
  • Came into force with retrospective effect from 1 December 2018
  • Run by the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmer Welfare (MoAFW) as a Central Sector Scheme (CSS).

Food Subsidy and the National Food Security Act

  • Government of India’s flagship programme aimed to ensure food security through the supply and distribution of foodgrains and other essential commodities
  • In 2013, the enactment of the National Food Security Act (NFSA) made the provision of adequate quantities of quality food at affordable prices and ensuring nutritional security a right
  • The Act legally mandates the coverage of two-thirds of India’s population
  • Run by the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution (MoCAF&PD)

Samagra Shiksha- An Integrated Scheme for School Education

  • Government of India’s flagship school education programme extending from pre-school to senior secondary classes in accordance with the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) for education
  • Launched in April 2018
  • Created by integrating the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA), and Teacher Education (TE)
  • Implemented by the Ministry of Education (MoE), erstwhile Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD)

 

To find detailed insights on the structure, fund flows and trends in implementation of these welfare programmes, download their respective budget briefs from here.

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