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In a Glance: India’s Major Welfare Programmes

Accountability Initiative Staff

3 March 2022

Through this blog, we give you a basic overview of India’s major welfare programmes.

Ayushman Bharat

  • Launched in September 2018 under the aegis of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW).
  • Consists of two initiatives: (1) The Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PMJAY); and 2) The establishment of 1.5 lakh Health and Wellness Centres.
  • PMJAY is a health insurance scheme aimed at providing health cover of ₹5 lakhs per family per year for inpatient secondary and tertiary care to poor and vulnerable families that form the bottom 40% of the Indian population and reducing out-of-pocket health expenditures.
  • The Health and Wellness Centre initiative aims to transform 1.5 lakh Sub Health Centres and Primary Health Centres– the first point of contact in primary healthcare – to Health and Wellness Centres by 2022.

Food Subsidy and the National Food Security Act

  • Government of India’s flagship programme aimed to ensure food security through the supply and distribution of food grains and other essential commodities.
  • In 2013, the enactment of the National Food Security Act (NFSA) made the provision of adequate quantities of quality food at affordable prices and ensuring nutritional security a right.
  • The Act legally mandates the coverage of two-thirds of India’s population.
  • Implemented by the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution (MoCAF&PD).

Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM)

  • Government of India’s flagship rural drinking water supply scheme.
  • It subsumes the previous National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP).
  • Aims to provide functional tap connections to every rural household for drinking, cooking, and other domestic needs on a sustainable basis by 2024.
  • Implemented by the Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation (DDWS) under the Ministry of Jal Shakti (MJS).

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS)

  • Government of India’s flagship scheme to provide at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every rural household that demands work.
  • Launched in 2006 following the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005.
  • Largest scheme of the Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD).

National Health Mission (NHM)

  • The National Health Mission (NHM) was launched by the Government of India in May 2013 subsuming the National Rural Health Mission (NHRM) and National Urban Health Mission (MHUM). 
  • Aims at achieving universal access to health care by strengthening health systems, institutions and capabilities.
  • Implemented by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW), the scheme was extended in March 2018, to continue until March 2020.
  • On 5 April 2020, to strengthen health systems and provide an immediate response to the COVID-19 pandemic, GoI announced the ‘India COVID-19 Emergency Response and Health System Preparedness Package’ (ERHSPP). 
  • NHM is the nodal body for implementation of the scheme. The period of the package is from 1 January 2020 to 31 March 2024, with expenditure prior to 3 April 2020 claimed retroactively.

Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana – Gramin (PMAY – G)

  • Government of India’s flagship ‘Housing for All’ scheme.
  • Launched in November 2016 after restructuring the Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY), a rural housing scheme started in 1996.
  • Aims to provide monetary assistance for the construction of a pucca house with basic amenities for all rural homeless families, and those living in dilapidated and kutcha houses by 2022. The scheme was extended till March 2024.
  • Implemented by the Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD).

Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN)

  • Income support scheme in which small and marginal farmers get up to ₹6,000 per year to supplement their financial needs.
  • Came into force with retrospective effect from 1 December 2018.
  • Implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmer Welfare (MoAFW) as a Central Sector Scheme (CSS).

Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY)

  • Government of India’s maternity benefit scheme providing conditional cash transfers to pregnant women and lactating mothers for the first live birth.
  • Previously known as the Indira Gandhi Matritva Sahyog Yojana, the scheme was launched in 2010 and renamed in 2017. 
  • At the national level, the scheme is implemented by the Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD).
  • At the state level, the scheme is to use the Anganwadi Centre (AWC) platform under the Women and Child Department or Social Justice Department.

Pradhan Mantri Poshan Shakti Nirman (PM-POSHAN)

  • Government of India’s flagship school-based feeding programme aimed at improving the nutritional status of students and promoting the universalisation of elementary education.
  • Launched as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) on 15th August 1995 as Mid-Day Meal Scheme (MDM).
  • Focusses on enhancing enrolment, retention and attendance of children while simultaneously improving nutritional levels.
  • Run by the Ministry of Education (MoE), erstwhile Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD). The name of the scheme was changed to PM-POSHAN (Pradhan Mantri Poshan Shakti Nirman) Scheme, in September 2021.
  • The scheme will be extended to students studying in pre-primary or Balvatikas running in government and government aided primary schools by 2022.

Saksham Anganwadi and Poshan 2.0

  • In Financial Year 2021-22, Government of India restructured Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) and POSHAN Abhiyaan into Saksham Anganwadi and POSHAN 2.0.
  • This consists of the following sub-schemes: The erstwhile ICDS; POSHAN Abhiyaan; Scheme for Adolescent Girls; and National Creche Scheme.
  • The stated objective of this restructuring was to converge the nutrition related initiatives of the Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD) and strengthen convergence with other concerned ministries like Health and Family Welfare, AYUSH (Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy), Rural Development, Panchayati Raj, and Environment and Forests.
  • It is the largest scheme of the Ministry  of Women and Child Development (MWCD).
  • Aims to reduce the incidence of mortality, morbidity, malnutrition, and school dropout, as well as enhance the capability of mothers to look after the health and nutritional needs of their child. It also aims to lay the foundation for proper psychological, physical and social development of the child.
  • The Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) was launched in 1975 in 33 districts and universalised in 2005.
  • POSHAN Abhiyaan, earlier known as the National Nutrition Mission, was launched in March 2018, with an aim to improve nutritional outcomes in a phased manner.

Samagra Shiksha- An Integrated Scheme for School Education

  • Government of India’s flagship school education programme extending from pre-school to senior secondary classes in accordance with the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) for education.
  • Created by integrating the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA), and Teacher Education (TE).
  • The integrated scheme was launched in April 2018.
  • Implemented by the Ministry of Education (MoE), erstwhile Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD).


To find detailed insights on the structure, fund flows and trends in implementation of these welfare programmes, download their respective budget briefs from here.

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