Showing content of: Avani Kapur

Total content: 274
Publication

Understanding India's Health Budgets

The budget is a vital tool to support the government in executing various programs and schemes in a methodical and strategic manner. Most importantly, it is the document that informs citizens of how t.....

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Publication

District Report on Nutrition Services: Kishanganj, Bihar

During Financial Year (FY) 2022-23, against the backdrop of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Accountability Initiative (AI) at the Centre for Policy Research (CPR) undertook a rapid assessment.....

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Publication

District Report on Nutrition Services: Purnia, Bihar

During Financial Year (FY) 2022-23, against the backdrop of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Accountability Initiative (AI) at the Centre for Policy Research (CPR) undertook a rapid assessment.....

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Primer

At A Glance: Maharashtra Financial Profile 2023-24

Using government data about the state of Maharashtra, this brief highlights: Trends in finances, including Grants-in-Aid and Madhya Pradesh's own sources of revenue, and Trend.....

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Primer

At A Glance: Madhya Pradesh Financial Profile 2023-24

Using government data about the state of Madhya Pradesh, this brief highlights: Trends in finances, including Grants-in-Aid and Madhya Pradesh's own sources of revenue, and Tr.....

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Primer

At A Glance: Bihar Financial Profile 2023-24

Using government data about the state of Bihar, this brief highlights: Trends in finances, including Grants-in-Aid and Bihar's own sources of revenue, and Trends in s.....

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Publication

Where Do the Victims of Gender Based Violence Go: A Needs Analysis for Women’s Safety Schemes in India

Despite several efforts, a survey in 2018 ranked India as the most dangerous country for women. The Government of India’s Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD) has several schemes, policies.....

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Publication

The Mission Creep Problem In Panchayat Finances

First published on Seminar (web-edition), available here. Despite the promulgation of the 73rd Amendment to the Constitution wherein states wer.....

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Avani Kapur

Publication

Financing Nutrition in India: Cost Implications of the Nutrition Policy Landscape 2022-23

Over the last few years, India has been implementing several nutrition interventions as part of its national strategy to address malnutrition and associated risks. These include nutrition-specific int.....

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Primer

At A Glance: Rajasthan Financial Profile 2023-24

Using government data about the state of Rajasthan, this brief highlights: Trends in finances, including Grants-in-Aid and Rajasthan's own sources of revenue, and Tre.....

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Publication

Making It Work: Institutionalising Social Audits in Meghalaya in India

In April 2017, Meghalaya enacted the Meghalaya Community Participation and Public Services Social Audit Act, 2017. The Meghalaya Society for Social Audit and Transparency (MSSAT) is responsible for im.....

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Articles

Budget 2023: Infrastructure Spending Grows But At The Expense Of Social Sector Spending

While the capital expenditure of the government doubled, this is the first time, since 2009, that social sector spending is less than 20% of total government expenditure......

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Publication

Smart Cities Mission

Smart Cities Mission (SCM) is Government of India’s (GoI’s) urban rejuvenation mission launched on 25 June 2015. The Mission was initiated with the objective of providing core infrastructure, and.....

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Publication

Pradhan Mantri Poshan Shakti Nirman

The National Programme of PM POSHAN, previously known as the National Scheme for Mid-Day Meals in schools (MDM), is a scheme to provide one hot cooked meal in government and government-aided schools,.....

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Publication

Ayushman Bharat

Ayushman Bharat, under the aegis of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW), was launched by Government of India (GoI) on 23 September 2018. This brief uses government data to analyse the.....

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Publication

Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana and Janani Suraksha Yojana

This brief reports on two maternity benefit schemes of the Government of India (GoI): a) Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY) provides partial wage compensation to improve health-seeking beh.....

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Publication

National Health Mission

National Health Mission (NHM) is Government of India's (GoI’s) largest public health programme, which aims to achieve universal access to quality healthcare. It consists of two sub-missions: ■ Na.....

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Publication

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) is Government of India’s (GoI’s) flagship scheme to provide at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year.....

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Publication

Samagra Shiksha

Samagra Shiksha is Government of India’s (GoI’s) school education programme covering preprimary to higher-secondary levels. Launched in April 2018, the scheme is the primary vehicle to implement t.....

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Publication

Mission Saksham Anganwadi and Poshan 2.0

In Financial Year (FY) 2021-22, the Government of India (GoI) restructured the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS), POSHAN (Prime Minister's Overarching Scheme for Holistic Nourishment) Abhiy.....

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Publication

Jal Jeevan Mission

Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM) is Government of India’s (GoI’s) rural drinking water programme to provide functional tap connections to every household for drinking, cooking, and other domestic needs on.....

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Publication

Food Subsidy and the National Food Security Act

Food Subsidy is provided by the Government of India (GoI) for the supply and distribution of foodgrains and other essential commodities. With the passing of the National Food Security Act (NFSA) in.....

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Publication

Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana - Gramin

Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana - Gramin (PMAY-G) is Government of India’s (GoI's) flagship ‘Housing for All’ scheme. The scheme aims to provide monetary assistance for the construction of a puc.....

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Publication

Regulation of Non-State Actors in School Education in India

First published as background paper prepared for the Global Education Monitoring Report on Non-state actors in Education –South A.....

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Publication

A Comprehensive Overview of Departmental Convergence Under MGNREGS

While government departments work in silos, there is potential to synergise effort, finances, and technical expertise to plan and implement programmes and achieve holistic objectives. This can benefit.....

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Other Publications

Ideation: Third Edition

The complexities involved in governing India are widely acknowledged. In countless conversations, the government is spoken to be akin to a machine with its cogs (people) and wheels (processes, rules a.....

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Publication

Understanding Policy Focus on Child Protection

First published in DCPCR's Children First: Journal on Children's Live; available here. Union budget 2022-23, announced the renami.....

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Publication

PAISA for Panchayats Study for the State of Kerala

The PAISA for Panchayats research project extends Accountability Initiative’s PAISA methodology to track fund flows and implementations processes at the Panchayat level. This study attempts to bridg.....

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Publication

Methods and Lessons From Costing a Large mHealth Intervention at Scale in India

The use of mobile devices to deliver public health interventions is rapidly increasing, particularly in low resource settings. Despite their proliferation, several mHealth interventions in developing.....

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Podcasts

सरकार का पैसा आख़िर जाता कहाँ है? Understanding India’s Public Finance

एक आम इंसान के रोज़मर्रा जीवन में कौनसी लेवल की सरकार ज़्यादा माईन�.....

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Op Eds

Centre Can't Absolve Itself Of Its Role In Worsening Fiscal Health Of States

Even on the verge of elections in five states, Union Budget 2022 was surprising for its restraint in not resorting to populist measures. Yet, while much of the debate focused.....

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Op Eds

Budget 2022 Shows How Quickly We Forget the Social and Welfare Net That Served Us During COVID

With revenues of the government expanding significantly, this was an opportunity to present a more expansive budget. Unfortunately, the budget made a clear choice. .....

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Op Eds

India Underspends On Nutrition, New Nutrition Programme Yet To Be Implemented

The guidelines of the restructured scheme, Saksham Anganwadi and POSHAN 2.0, are still being worked out and POSHAN 2.0 has not yet been approved, an RTI response revealed.....

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Publication

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) is Government of India’s (GoI’s) flagship scheme to provide at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a Financial Year.....

Read More >>
Publication

Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana - Gramin

Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana - Gramin (PMAY-G) is Government of India’s (GoI) flagship ‘Housing for All’ scheme. The scheme was launched in November 2016 and aims to provide monetary assistance f.....

Read More >>
Avani Kapur

Publication

National Health Mission

National Health Mission (NHM) is Government of India's (GoI’s) largest public health programme. It consists of two sub-missions: ■ National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), and ■ National Urban He.....

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Publication

Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi

Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN) is Government of India’s (GoI’s) income support scheme, under which all landholding farmers receive up to ₹6,000 per year to supplement their financi.....

Read More >>
Publication

Jal Jeevan Mission

Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM) is Government of India’s (GoI’s) rural drinking water programme to provide functional tap connections to every household for drinking, cooking, and other domestic needs on.....

Read More >>
Publication

Food Subsidy and the National Food Security Act

Food Subsidy is provided by the Government of India (GoI) for the supply and distribution of foodgrains and other essential commodities. With the passing of the National Food Security Act (NFSA) in.....

Read More >>
Publication

Pradhan Mantri Poshan Shakti Nirman

The National Programme of PM POSHAN, previously known as the National Scheme for Mid-Day Meals in schools (MDM), is a scheme to provide one hot cooked meal in government and government-aided schools......

Read More >>
Publication

Saksham Anganwadi and POSHAN 2.0

In Financial Year (FY) 2021-22, Government of India (GoI) restructured the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS), POSHAN (Prime Minister's Overarching Scheme for Holistic Nourishment) Abhiyaan,.....

Read More >>
Publication

Samagra Shiksha

Samagra Shiksha is Government of India’s (GoI’s) school education programme extending from the pre-primary to higher-secondary level. The scheme was launched in April 2018 to ensure equitable and.....

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Publication

Water and Federalism: Working with States for Water Security

This study explores the Union government’s role in influencing and incentivising better Water Resources Management outcomes in the states through the policy, legal, financial, and institutional inst.....

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Publication

Child Protection Services (CPS) Scheme

Even as large parts of government budgets and efforts are directed towards fighting the pandemic, it is important to ensure that children are not overlooked. Critical during this time is going to be e.....

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Publication

State–Society Synergy at COVID-19’s Invisible Front Lines

The voices of rural residents and front-line officials in India’s villages and small towns are often absent in accounts of the pandemic, which have focused on the crises unfolding in major cities. Y.....

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Op Eds

Four Lessons the Pandemic has Taught Us on Accountability

The COVID-19 pandemic has left an indelible mark across the world. A global economic crisis now compounds human tragedies. The world is witnessing recessions, increased debt,.....

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Other Publications

Ideation: Second Edition

In spite of some initial wins, India has seen a massive increase in the number of COVID-19 infections. Media focus is on the country's metropolitans, but it is more than likely that the pandemic will.....

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Publication

Public Finance Management and Data Availability for Nutrition Financing in India

For investments to translate into improved public service delivery, having a strong public finance management (PFM) system that lays out the rules, institutions and processes by which public funds are.....

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Other Publications

Ideation: A Resource for Policy Ideas

Ideation is a knowledge resource that seeks to offer today's decision-takers and policy shapers, distilled insights from both our work as well as interactions in the public policy and development spac.....

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Op Eds

What the Budget Means for India’s Social Sector

With livelihoods, poverty and social safety nets still in a precarious position, the neglect of the social sector will hamper India’s attempt to build a dynamic, resilient a.....

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Op Eds

Covid Needed Special Attention to Health but Modi Govt Budget Doesn’t Give a Clear Roadmap

Direct spending via Health Ministry continues to be low. After a 24 per cent increase during the current fiscal, allocations for FY22 fall by 11 per cent. .....

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Op Eds

Rural Job Scheme Sidelined; No Push for Nutrition, Health

Minimal budget increases for the social sector but a focus on infrastructure and capital expenditure seem to be the general theme in Budget 2021. .....

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Publication

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) is Government of India’s (GoI’s) flagship scheme to provide at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a Financial Year.....

Read More >>
Publication

Jal Jeevan Mission

Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM) is Government of India’s (GoI’s) rural drinking water programme to provide functional tap connections to every household for drinking, cooking, and other domestic needs on.....

Read More >>
Publication

Food Subsidy and the National Food Security Act

Food Subsidy is provided by the Government of India (GoI) for the supply and distribution of foodgrains and other essential commodities. The National Food Security Act (NFSA) 2013, ensured nutritio.....

Read More >>
Publication

National Health Mission

National Health Mission (NHM) is Government of India's (GoI’s) largest public health programme. It consists of two sub-missions: National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) and National Urban Health Missio.....

Read More >>
Publication

Poshan Abhiyaan

POSHAN Abhiyaan is Government of India’s (GoI’s) flagship scheme that aims to holistically address the prevalence of malnutrition in India through the use of technology, convergence, behavioural c.....

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Meghna Paul , Avani Kapur

Publication

Samagra Shiksha

Samagra Shiksha - an integrated scheme for school education, is Government of India’s (GoI’s) school education programme extending from pre-school to senior secondary stages. The scheme was launch.....

Read More >>
Publication

Integrated Child Development Services

Integrated Child Development Services is Government of India’s (GoI's) flagship programme aimed at providing basic education, health, and nutrition services for early childhood development. It has n.....

Read More >>
Publication

Ayushman Bharat

Ayushman Bharat, under the aegis of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW), was launched by Government of India (GoI) on 23 September 2018. The programme consists of two initiatives: (1) Th.....

Read More >>
Publication

Mid-Day Meal Scheme

The National Programme of Mid-Day Meals (MDM) in School scheme is Government of India’s (GoI’s) flagship school-based feeding programme aimed at improving the nutritional status of students and pr.....

Read More >>
Publication

Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi

Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN) is Government of India’s (GoI’s) income support scheme, under which all landholding farmers get up to Rs. 6,000 per year to supplement their financial.....

Read More >>
Publication

PAISA for Municipalities

This study aims to understand the nature and compute the size of the local public sector in the Smart City of Tumakuru, in Karnataka State. It makes use of our flagship methodology Planning, Allocatio.....

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Op Eds

Decoding the Dip in Public Expenditure

Typically, when a crisis hits, the expectation is that the Centre — which has more revenue-raising abilities than states — will take the lead in preparing a fiscal road ma.....

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Op Eds

Commitment to Action: Ensuring Nutrition Financing in India

While low revenues due to the pandemic may mean substantial funds for nutrition may not be possible, there are still ways to ensure more nutrition for the money. Here’s how......

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Op Eds

Why India Needs to Urgently Ensure Adequate Finances for Mid-Day Meal Scheme

While States were quick to adapt by providing grains or food security allowance (FSA) directly to families, recent studies have shown that the actual provision of nutrition th.....

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Op Eds

कोरोना महामारी के चलते भारत का मूलभूत पोषण कार्यक्रम पड़ा कमजोर

पोषण पर कोविड-19 महामारी का प्रभाव आने वाले कई सालों तक महसूस होने वा.....

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Op Eds

How COVID-19 Has Made India’s Foundational Nutrition Programme Weaker

The COVID-19 pandemic has hugely affected the Indian government's nutrition programmes making groups like pregnant women and infants suffer the most. In this article the assoc.....

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Publication

Financing Nutrition in India: Cost Implications of the Nutrition Policy Landscape 2019-20

India should have spent at least ₹38,571 crore in 2019-20, across Union government ministries and State government departments to fully finance a set of core direct nutrition interventions (DNIs), a.....

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Op Eds

चंद महीनों में दूर नहीं होगी राजकोषीय कमज़ोरी

जैसे-जैसे कोविड-19 देश में अपने पैर पसार रहा है, इस महामारी से लड़ने क�.....

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Publication

How to Design Nutrition Financing

In recent years, we have seen positive developments in policy, funding and outcomes on child nutrition in India. Now, when the Covid-19 pandemic has placed a significant strain on our already vulnerab.....

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Avani Kapur

Blog

COVID-19 Response: Why Repackaged Health Spending Promises Offer Nothing New

Breaking the silence on specific measures to increase health expenditure and infrastructure on 17th May, Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman made health one of the key.....

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Op Eds

Indian States are Short of Money. They Need Help.

Changes of the past six years had put their finances in a precarious position. The current measures aren’t enough. .....

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Publication

Study of State Finances 2020-21 (Provisional)

The 'Study of State Finances 2020-21' Working Paper delves into the revenue and expenditure performance of 17 States. As the COVID-19 pandemic tightens its grip, this timely analysis offers a unique w.....

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Op Eds

Three Ways India Could Streamline its COVID-19 Relief Measures to Protect Vulnerable Citizens

Developing a decentralised, community-led and inclusive response will be crucial. .....

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Op Eds

Supporting Field Workers to Combat COVID-19

Field workers are playing a critical role in helping communities access government schemes and services, and we need to invest more in this cadre. .....

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Op Eds

This National Panchayati Raj Day, Local Governance is More Important Than Ever Before

Many states have made panchayats the nodal agency for COVID-19 coordination, but sometimes there may be gaps between the torrent of duties being delegated to them and the rea.....

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Op Eds

Post COVID-19, India Needs Increased Focus on Air Quality

The coronavirus crisis necessitates making health and social protection a priority. But we must not lose momentum on the strides made in tackling air pollution. .....

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Publication

Did India's Ecological Fiscal Transfers Incentivize State Governments to Increase their Forestry Budgets?

Ecological fiscal transfers (EFTs) involve higher levels of government distributing funds to lower levels of government based on ecological indicators. In 2015 India established the world's largest sy.....

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Op Eds

Does Budget do enough for aspirational India?

The budget is a reflection of the slowdown. Revised estimates (REs), a reflection of expenditure for the year for most schemes, have fallen across the board. .....

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Op Eds

Rural India reels under economic slump

Currently, two of the Government of India’s (GoI) largest schemes focussed on reviving the rural economy have been the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Sch.....

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Op Eds

Will children get attention in budget?

The latest National Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) Policy that focussed on children under 6 was in 2013. .....

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Publication

Poshan Abhiyaan

The Poshan Abhiyaan earlier known as the National Nutrition Mission is Government of India’s (GoI’s) flagship scheme that aims to holistically address the prevalence of malnutrition in India throu.....

Read More >>
Publication

National Health Mission

The National Health Mission (NHM) is Government of India's (GoI's) largest public health programme. It consists of two sub-missions: ■ National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), and ■ National Ur.....

Read More >>
Publication

Swachh Bharat Mission - Gramin

The Swachh Bharat Mission- Gramin or SBM-G is the Government of India’s (GoI’s) flagship rural sanitation programme run by the Ministry of Jal Shakti (MJS). Using government data, this brief re.....

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Publication

Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana & Janani Suraksha Yojana

This brief reports on two schemes: a) The Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY), Government of India’s (GoI’s) maternity benefit scheme aimed at providing partial compensation for wage loss.....

Read More >>
Publication

Ayushman Bharat

Ayushman Bharat, under the aegis of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) was launched by Government of India (GoI) on 23 September 2018. The programme consists of two initiatives: (1) The.....

Read More >>
Publication

Integrated Child Development Services

The Integrated Child Development Services is Government of India’s (GoI’s) flagship programme aimed at providing basic education, health, and nutrition services for early childhood development......

Read More >>
Publication

PM- KISAN : Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi

Pradhan Mantri KIsan SAmman Nidhi (PM-KISAN) is an income support scheme by the Government of India (GoI) in which small and marginal farmers get up to Rs 6,000 per year to supplement their financial.....

Read More >>
Publication

Jal Jeevan Mission

In Financial Year (FY) 2019-20, the National Rural Drinking Water Mission (NRDWM) was restructured and subsumed into Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM). It is Government of India’s (GoI's) flagship rural drin.....

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Publication

MGNREGS :Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) is a flagship scheme of the Government of India (GoI) which aims to provide at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a fin.....

Read More >>
Publication

Samagra Shiksha

Samagra Shiksha - An Integrated Scheme for School Education is Government of India’s (GoI’s) school education programme extending from pre-school to senior secondary classes. The scheme was launch.....

Read More >>
Publication

Mid-Day Meal Scheme

The National Programme of Mid-Day Meals in School (MDM) scheme is Government of India’s (GoI’s) flagship school-based feeding programme aimed at improving the nutritional status of students and pr.....

Read More >>
Publication

Swachh Bharat Mission - Urban

The Swachh Bharat Mission- Urban (SBM-U) is the Government of India's (GoI) flagship programme targeting universal sanitation coverage in urban areas. Using government data, this brief reports on:.....

Read More >>
Publication

Child Protection Services

Child Protection Services is Government of India’s (GoI’s) flagship programme to provide preventive and statutory care, and rehabilitation services to children in need of care and protection and t.....

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Op Eds

Declaring India 'Open Defecation Free' Doesn't Mean Sanitation Goals Have Been Met

Overcoming resistance to toilet usage requires addressing values, norms and beliefs that will lead to behaviour change, and ultimately the health and economic benefits......

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Op Eds

Keep Planting Money Plants

Forests have been all over the news recently as the Brazilian Amazon burns and the world reacts. One of the most consequential decisions for India’s forests will be made s.....

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Op Eds

Farm to health to education, Modi govt’s Budget has no clear vision for India’s social sector

The Budget reverted to Modi government’s old avatar – a focus on infrastructure and a mission-mode model of meeting targets, this time for water......

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Op Eds

Budget 2019 Is Ambitious on Healthcare. But More Can Be Done

The budget has taken a few steps in the right direction, but there is a need to intensify public expenditure on health......

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Publication

National Rural Drinking Water Mission (NRDWM)

In FY 2017-18, the National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP) was expanded and is now known as the National Rural Drinking Water Mission (NRDWM). It is Government of India’s (GoI) flagship rura.....

Read More >>
Publication

Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana - Gramin (PMAY-G)

Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana - Gramin (PMAY-G) is Government of India’s (GoI’s) flagship ‘Housing for All’ scheme. The scheme was launched in November 2016 and aims to provide monetary assistan.....

Read More >>
Publication

Swachh Bharat Mission - Gramin (SBM-G)

The Swachh Bharat Mission- Gramin or SBM-G is the Government of India’s (GoI) flagship rural sanitation programme. Using government data, this brief reports on trends for SBM-G along the followin.....

Read More >>
Publication

Ayushman Bharat

Ayushman Bharat, under the aegis of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) was launched by Government of India (GoI) on 23 September 2018. The programme consists of two initiatives: (1).....

Read More >>
Publication

Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS)

The Integrated Child Development Services is the Government of India’s (GoI’s) flagship programme aimed at providing basic education, health, and nutrition services for early childhood development.....

Read More >>
Publication

Swachh Bharat Mission - Urban (SBM-U)

The Swachh Bharat Mission- Urban (SBM-U) is the Government of India's (GoI) flagship programme targeting universal sanitation coverage in urban areas. Using government data, this brief reports on:.....

Read More >>
Publication

National Health Mission (NHM)

The National Health Mission (NHM) is Government of India's (GoI's) largest public health programme. It consists of two sub-missions: ■ National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), and ■ National Ur.....

Read More >>
Publication

Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana & Janani Suraksha Yojana

This brief reports on two maternity benefits schemes, offering conditional cash transfers to pregnant women and mothers: a) The Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY), Government of India’s (Go.....

Read More >>
Publication

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) is a flagship scheme of the Government of India (GoI) which aims to provide at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a fin.....

Read More >>
Publication

Samagra Shiksha

Samagra Shiksha - An Integrated Scheme for School Education, is Government of India’s (GoI’s) school education programme extending from pre-school to senior secondary classes. The scheme was launc.....

Read More >>
Op Eds

CSS a Good Policy, but only on Paper

In the last 18 years, the Centre spent Rs 14 lakh crore on social services. But centrally sponsored schemes are undermining state say......

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Blog

Towards ‘Cooperative’ Social Policy Financing in India

A unique feature in India’s federal architecture is the pivotal role played by the Union government in financing and monitoring social welfare programmes, and in ensuring that all states have adequa.....

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Avani Kapur

Publication

Federalism and Social Policy

Through an extensive review of Union budgets and planning documents, and 20 state budgets and finance accounts, this paper seeks to present a descriptive account of emerging trends and the unfolding d.....

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Avani Kapur

Publication

National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP) GoI, 2019-20 (Pre-Budget)

National Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP), is Government of India’s (GoI’s) flagship rural drinking water supply scheme. The scheme aims to provide safe and adequate water for drinking, cooking, a.....

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Publication

Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) (Post-Interim Budget)

The Integrated Child Development Services is the Government of India’s (GoI's) flagship programme aimed at providing basic education, health, and nutrition services for early childhood development......

Read More >>
Publication

Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana - Gramin (PMAY - G) GoI, 2019-20 (Pre-Budget)

Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana - Gramin (PMAY - G) is Government of India’s (GoI’s) flagship ‘Housing for All’ scheme. The scheme was launched in November 2016 and aims to provide monetary assist.....

Read More >>
Publication

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme GoI, 2019-20 (Pre-Budget)

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) is a flagship scheme of the Government of India (GoI) which aims to provide at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a fin.....

Read More >>
Publication

Swachh Bharat Mission -Gramin GoI, 2019-20 (Pre-Budget)

Swachh Bharat MissionGramin or SBM-G is the Government of India’s (GoI) flagship rural sanitation programme. Using government data, this brief reports on trends for SBM-G along the following para.....

Read More >>
Publication

Swachh Bharat Mission - Gramin (SBM-G) (Post-Interim Budget)

The Swachh Bharat MissionGramin or SBM-G is the Government of India’s (GoI's) flagship rural sanitation programme. Using government data, this brief reports on trends for SBM-G along the following p.....

Read More >>
Publication

Samagra Shiksha (Post-Interim Budget)

Samagra Shiksha - An Integrated Scheme for School Education, is Government of India’s (GoI's) school education programme extending from pre-school to senior secondary classes. The scheme was launche.....

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Publication

Samagra Shiksha GoI, 2019-20 (Pre-Budget)

Samagra Shiksha - An Integrated Scheme for School Education, is Government of India’s (GoI's) school education programme extending from pre-school to senior secondary classes. The scheme was launch.....

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Publication

Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana & Janani Suraksha Yojana (PMMVY & JSY) (Post-Interim Budget)

This brief reports on two maternity benefits schemes, offering conditional cash transfers to pregnant women and mothers: a) The Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY), Government of India’s (Go.....

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Publication

National Health Mission (NHM) (Post-Interim Budget)

The National Health Mission (NHM) is Government of India's (GoI’s) largest public health programme. It consists of two sub-missions: ■ National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), and ■ National Urb.....

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Publication

Swachh Bharat Mission - Urban (SBM-U) (Post-Interim Budget)

The Swachh Bharat MissionUrban (SBM-U) is the Government of India's (GoI's) flagship programme targeting universal sanitation coverage in urban areas. Using government data, this brief reports on: ■.....

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Publication

Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana & Janani Suraksha Yojana (PMMVY & JSY) GoI, 2019-20 (Pre-Budget)

This brief reports on two maternity benefits schemes, offering conditional cash transfers to pregnant women and mothers: a) The Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY), Government of India’s (Go.....

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Publication

National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP) (Post-Interim Budget)

The National Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP), is Government of India’s (GoI’s) flagship rural drinking water supply scheme. The scheme aims to provide safe and adequate water for drinking, cookin.....

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Publication

National Health Mission (NHM) GoI, 2019-20 (Pre-Budget)

National Health Mission (NHM) is Government of India's (GoI’s) largest public health programme. It consists of two sub-missions: ■ National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), and ■ National Urba.....

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Publication

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) (Post-Interim Budget)

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) is a flagship scheme of the Government of India (GoI) which aims to provide at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a fin.....

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Publication

Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban (SBM-U) GoI, 2019-20 (Pre-Budget)

Swachh Bharat Mission- Urban (SBM-U) is the Government of India's (GoI's) nation-wide flagship programme targeting universal sanitation coverage in urban areas. Using government data, this brief re.....

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Publication

Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) GoI, 2019-20 (Pre-Budget)

The Integrated Child Development Services is the Government of India’s (GoI's) flagship programme aimed at providing basic education, health and nutrition services for early childhood development. T.....

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Op Eds

Lessons from the PAISA Project

This article will look at some of the reasons why PAISA and PAISA-type studies are required in a country like India, the lessons we have learnt from it and finally some thoughts on solutions that are.....

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Publication

Education Sector, GOI 2009-10

The Government of India (GOI) implements a number of programmes for the achievement of the Education for All goal. Elementary education is a key priority and Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is the larges.....

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Publication

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, GOI 2011-12

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is the Government of India’s (GOI) flagship elementary education programme. Launched in 2001, it aims to provide universal primary education to children between the age.....

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Publication

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, GOI 2012-13

The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is the Government of India's (GOI) flagship elementary education programme. Launched in 2001, it aims to provide universal primary education to children between the age.....

Read More >>
Publication

Bihar, State Report Card, 2016

Using government reported data, this brief looks closely at the effects of the Fourteenth Finance Commission (FFC) recommendations on state finances in Bihar, with a particular focus on effects on soc.....

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Publication

Chhattisgarh, State Report Card, 2016

Using government reported data, this brief looks closely at the effects of the Fourteenth Finance Commission (FFC) recommendations on state finances in Chhattisgarh, with a particular focus on effect.....

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Publication

Karnataka, State Report Card, 2016

Using government reported data, this brief looks closely at the effects of the Fourteenth Finance Commission (FFC) recommendations on state finances in Karnataka, with a particular focus on effects on.....

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Publication

Maharashtra, State Report Card, 2016

Using government reported data, this brief looks closely at the effects of the Fourteenth Finance Commission (FFC) recommendations on state finances in Maharashtra, with a particular focus on effects.....

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Publication

Rajasthan, State Report Card, 2016

Using government reported data, this brief looks closely at the effects of the Fourteenth Finance Commission (FFC) recommendations on state finances in Rajasthan, with a particular focus on effects on.....

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Publication

Tamil Nadu, State Report Card, 2016

Using government reported data, this brief looks closely at the effects of the Fourteenth Finance Commission (FFC) recommendations on state finances in Tamil Nadu, with a particular focus on effects o.....

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Publication

Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana - Gramin (PMAY-G) (Post-Interim Budget)

Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana - Gramin (PMAY-G) is Government of India’s (GoI’s) flagship ‘Housing for All’ scheme. The scheme was launched in November 2016 and aims to provide monetary assistan.....

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Op Eds

‘Seeking cohesive social sector strategy’

More than ever before, the Interim Budget 2019-20 needs to be studied by going beyond budget numbers, and instead focusing on what they reflect about the social sector strategy employed by the Read.....

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Op Eds

Budget 2018: Why Arun Jaitley must focus on education, health, nutrition

While the target for household toilets in urban areas was revised downwards to 6.64 million last year, there is still a long way to go in ensuring even universal toilet access Read more at .....

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Op Eds

Political Messaging Masks Budget 2018 Actual Delivery in the Social Sector

Even as schemes have received minimal allocations, this budget signals an important shift in the political narrative. Gone is the focus on jobs, skills, aspirations and empowerment. Read more at .....

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Op Eds

Decentralised Approach to Tackling Nutrition

What is required is a holistic and comprehensive plan to nutrition......

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Op Eds

Where has the social sector money gone?

This year's budget was to focus on "strengthening agriculture and rural economy, provision of good healthcare to economically less privileged, taking care of senior citizens, infrastructure creation a.....

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Op Eds

How A ‘Pro-Poor’ Budget Downplays Programmes That Fund The Poor

Budget speeches are all about messaging. While we all speculated on what the budget will hold for the social sector, many of us, got it wrong......

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Op Eds

Political Messaging Masks Budget 2018’s Actual Delivery in the Social Sector

Even as schemes have received minimal allocations, this budget signals an important shift in the political narrative. Gone is the focus on jobs, skills, aspirations and empowerment......

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Op Eds

स्वास्थ्य सेवाओं को इलाज की जरूरत

हर साल बजट पेश होने के बाद सार्वजनिक स्वास्थ्य पर होने वाली बहस सिर्फ एक आंक�.....

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Op Eds

Budget 2018 and education: Restoring the balance

Can India realize its demographic potential in the absence of a far-sighted policy for education as a whole?.....

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Op Eds

Budget 2018: Stumbling towards sustainable sanitation

The challenge will be in ensuring that open defecation-free villages and cities are truly ODF, but more crucially that they remain so......

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Op Eds

Budget 2018: India’s secondary education challenge- it’s not elementary, my dear

India has such limited access to basic education that any conversation about quality education is seen as aspirational bordering on utopian.....

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Op Eds

Budget 2018 view: ‘Patient’ approach to better health

Budget 2018 view: ‘Patient’ approach to better health.....

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Op Eds

The vicious cycle of unspent balances - Part 2

Why is the money allocated to social sector schemes left unspent......

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Op Eds

The vicious cycle of unspent balances - Part 1

Why is the money allocated to social sector schemes left unspent......

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Op Eds

Did Union Budget - 2016 allocate more for rural India and the social sector? Not really

A closer look at budgetary numbers highlights why Indian budgets need to be more transparent......

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Articles

Status quo for majority of social sector schemes

There were a lot of expectations from Budget 2017. The demonetisation on November 8, and the chapter on Universal Basic Income (UBI) in the Economic Survey had raised our hopes for a big bang announce.....

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Op Eds

Renewed focus on maternal and child health a welcome first step

The demonetisation sop is a unique opportunity to evolve the maternal and child health agenda into a universal Maternity Benefits Programme in the budget......

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Op Eds

Competing for better health?

quality of healthcare, regardless of whether this is provided in the private or public system, is the elephant in the room.24/01/2017 Poor quality of healthcare, regardless of whether this is provide.....

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Op Eds

Swachh Bharat Mission's Success Is Greatly Exaggerated

October 2, 2016 marked the second anniversary of the launch of Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) - an event that most will remember for the photo-ops of the Prime Minister sweeping the streets of Lutyens De.....

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Op Eds

Lessons from the Bihar model of development

Bihar proves that a state's good performance in development and governance pays political dividends......

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Op Eds

The State of Social Sector Spending in 15-16

Avani and Vikram analyse the state of social sector spending in 2015 - 2016. Overall, it was found that social sector investments have in fact increased across all states, except Bihar......

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Op Eds

The wrong way to fix government schools

Solution is not to force people with power to participate in government schools, but, to grant power to the people who already do.....

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Op Eds

Deconstructing Union Budget 2015-16: what has changed?

The budget has left unanswered some critical questions about the future of key social sector schemes.....

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Op Eds

In the hands of the States

The decentralisation blueprint is ready. Nuts and bolts must now be put......

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Op Eds
Op Eds

How data can mislead in analysing social policy

India needs a transformation in how data is measured and analysed to form policy.....

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Publication

Integrated Child Development Services, GOI, 2013-14

The Integrated Child Development Services(ICDS) scheme is one of the world’s largest programmes for early child development, aiming to improve the nutritional and health status of children aged 0 to.....

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Avani Kapur

Publication

JNNURM, GOI, 2013-14

Launched in December 2005, the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) is Government of India's (GOI) flagship programme for urban development. The programme consists of two sub-missi.....

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Avani Kapur

Publication

MGNREGS: GOI, 2013-14

The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) is the flagship rural employment scheme of the Government of India (GOI). The scheme guarantees 100 days of employment per rural.....

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Avani Kapur

Publication

Mid Day Meal Scheme, GOI, 2013 -14

The Mid-Day Meal (MDM) scheme is the world's largest school-based feeding programme aimed at improving the nutritional status of students and promoting the universalization of elementary education......

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Avani Kapur

Publication

National Rural Health Mission, GOI, 2013-14

Launched in 2005, the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) is the Government of India's (GOI) largest public health programme. Using government data, this brief reports on NRHM expenditures along t.....

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Avani Kapur

Publication

National Social Assistance Programme, GOI 2013 -14

The National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP) was launched in 1995 with the objective of supporting minimum needs of specified social groups such as the elderly, widows and disabled persons living i.....

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Avani Kapur

Publication

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, GOI, 2013-14

The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is the Government of India's (GOI) flagship elementary education programme. Launched in 2001, it aims to provide universal primary education to children between the age.....

Read More >>
Avani Kapur

Publication

National Rural Health Mission, GOI, 2014-15

Launched in 2005, the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) is the Government of India's (GOI) largest public health programme. Using government data, this brief reports on NRHM expenditures along t.....

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Avani Kapur , Smriti Iyer

Publication

National Social Assistance Programme, GOI 2014-15

The National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP) was launched in 1995 with the objective of supporting minimum needs of specified social groups such as the elderly, widows and disabled persons living i.....

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Avani Kapur , Smriti Iyer

Publication

Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan, GOI 2014-15

Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA) previously called the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) is the Government of India's (GOI) flagship programme for providing access to rural sanitation facilities. Using go.....

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Avani Kapur , Smriti Iyer

Publication

Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan, GOI 2014-15

The Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) is the Government of India’s (GOI) flagship secondary education programme. The scheme was launched in March 2009 to augment access to and improve the q.....

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Avani Kapur , Smriti Iyer

Publication

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, GOI, 2014-15

The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is the Government of India's (GOI) flagship elementary education programme. Launched in 2001, it aims to provide universal primary education to children between the age.....

Read More >>
Avani Kapur , Smriti Iyer

Publication

Backward Regions Grant Fund, GOI 2015-16

Launched in 2005, the Backward Regions Grant Fund (BRGF) is the Government of India’s (GOI) flagship programme aimed at addressing infrastructure and capacity gaps in backward districts. The.....

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Publication

Integrated Child Development Services, GOI, 2015-16

The Integrated Child Development Services(ICDS) scheme is one of the world’s largest programmes for early child development, aiming to improve the nutritional and health status of children aged 0 to.....

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Avani Kapur , Ekta Joshi

Publication

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme(MGNREGS), GOI, 2015-16

The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme(MGNREGS) is the flagship rural employment scheme of the Government of India (GOI). It provides 100 days of employment per rural household......

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Publication

National Health Mission, GOI 2015-16

The National Health Mission (NHM) is the Government of India’s (GOI) largest public health programme. NHM consists of 2 sub-missions National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) Nat.....

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Publication

Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan, GOI, 2015-16

The Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) is the Government of India’s (GOI) flagship secondary education programme. The scheme was launched in March 2009 to augment access to and improve the q.....

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Avani Kapur , Amee Misra

Publication

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, GOI, 2015-16

The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is the Government of India’s (GOI) flagship elementary education programme. Launched in 2001, it aims to provide universal primary education to children between the a.....

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Avani Kapur , Smriti Iyer

Publication

Integrated Child Development Services, GOI, 2016-17

This brief uses government reported data to analyse ICDS performance along the following parameters: Overall trends in allocation and expenditures Expenditure performance acro.....

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Publication

National Health Mission, GOI, 2016-17

Mission (NHM) is the Government of India’s (GOI) largest public health programme. NHM consists of two sub-missions National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) National Urban Health.....

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Publication

State of Social Sector Expenditure in 2015-16

The 14th Finance Commission’s (FFC) recommendations, accepted by the Union Government in February 2015, set the stage for a radical overhaul of India’s fiscal architecture. The recommendations wer.....

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Publication

Swachh Bharat Mission - Gramin, GOI, 2016-17

Using government data, this brief reports on trends for SBM Gramin along the following parameters: Allocations and expenditures Physical progress of toilets built .....

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Publication

Direct Benefit Transfer, Jan Dhan, Aadhaar and Mobile, GOI, 2017-18

Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) is a Government of India (GOI) initiative to transfer cash benefits such as wage payments, subsidies and incentives for a number of government programmes directly into ba.....

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Publication

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS), GOI, 2017-18

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) is the flagship rural employment scheme of the Government of India (GOI). It aims to provide 100 days of employment per rural househ.....

Read More >>
Publication

National Health Mission, GOI, 2017-18

The National Health Mission is the Government of India’s largest public health programme. It consists of two sub-missions: (1) National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) (2) National Urban Health Mission.....

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Publication

Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana, GOI, 2017-18

The Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) was launched by the Government of India (GOI) on 25 December, 2000 to provide all-weather road connectivity in rural areas. PMGSY is administered by the Mi.....

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Publication

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, GOI, 2017-18

The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is the Government of India’s (GOI) flagship elementary education programme. Launched in 2001, it aims to provide universal primary education to children between the a.....

Read More >>
Publication

Swachh Bharat Mission - Gramin, GOI, 2017-18

The Swachh Bharat Mission- Gramin or SBM-G is the Government of India’s (GOI) flagship rural sanitation programme. Using government data, this brief reports on.....

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Publication

Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban, GOI, 2017-18

The Swachh Bharat MissionUrban (SBM-U) is Government of India’s (GOI) nationwide flagship programme targeting universal sanitation coverage in urban areas. Using government data, this brief repor.....

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Publication

Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS)

The Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) is Government of India's (GoI) flagship programme aimed at providing basic education, health and nutrition services for early childhood development......

Read More >>
Publication

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS)

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) is a flagship scheme of the Government of India (GoI) which aims to provide at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a fin.....

Read More >>
Publication

National Health Mission (NHM)

The National Health Mission (NHM) is Government of India's (GoI) largest public health programme. It consists of two submissions: ■ National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), and ■ National Ur.....

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Publication

Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana – Gramin

Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana - Gramin (PMAY - G) is Government of India’s (GoI) flagship ‘Housing for All’ scheme. The scheme was launched in November 2016 and aims to provide monetary assistance.....

Read More >>
Publication

Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA)

Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) is Government of India’s (GoI) flagship secondary education programme. The scheme was launched in March 2009 to augment access to, and improve the quality.....

Read More >>
Publication

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA)

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is the Government of India’s (GoI) flagship elementary education programme. Launched in 2001, it aims to provide universal education to children between the ages of 6 to.....

Read More >>
Publication

Self Employment Scheme for Rehabilitation of Manual Scavengers (SRMS)

The Self Employment Scheme for Rehabilitation of Manual Scavengers (SRMS) is a Central Sector Scheme of the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment (MSJE). The scheme was introduced in January 2007.....

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Publication

Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin (SBM-G)

Swachh Bharat Mission- Gramin or SBM-G is the Government of India’s (GoI) flagship rural sanitation programme. Using government data, this brief reports on trends for SBM-G along the following pa.....

Read More >>
Publication

Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban (SBM-U)

The Swachh Bharat Mission - Urban (SBM-U) is the Government of India’s (GoI) nationwide flagship programme targeting universal sanitation coverage in urban areas. Using government data, this brie.....

Read More >>
Publication

Self Employment Scheme for Rehabilitation of Manual Scavengers (SRMS)

The Self Employment Scheme for Rehabilitation of Manual Scavengers (SRMS) is a Central Sector Scheme of the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment (MSJE). The scheme was introduced in January 2007.....

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Publication

Urban Development, GOI 2008-09

India is urbanising rapidly, and the government has been allocating increasing amounts of money for urban development. Launched in December 2005, Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNUR.....

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Avani Kapur

Publication

Analysis of State Budgets: Elementary Education

This brief examines trends in elementary education spending in I ndia. It focuses on Government of India’s ( GOI) Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) and state government allocations and expenditures for el.....

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Avani Kapur

Publication

Swachh Bharat Mission - Gramin, GOI, 2015-16

The Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM), previously called the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA),is the Government of India’s (GOI) flagship programme for providing access to sanitation facilities. Using gover.....

Read More >>
Publication

National Rural Health Mission, GOI, 2011-12

Launched in 2005, the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) is the Government of India's (GOI) largest public health programme. Using government data, this brief reports on NRHM expenditures along t.....

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Blog

Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) 3 Years On

October 2 this year marked the third anniversary of the Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM), the Government of India’s (GoI) flagship programme to achieve the goal of total sanitation by 2019. In.....

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Blog

#3 THE 14TH FINANCE COMMISSION AND SOCIAL SECTOR SPENDING

In India, most public services provided to citizens are delivered by the governments of the states they live in. The theory of federalism tells us that State governments are likely to have a better id.....

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Blog

#1 Winners and Losers: How the 14th Finance Commission Recommendations Impacted State Revenues

In February 2015, the Union Government accepted the recommendations of the 14th Finance Commission (FFC) and set the stage for a radical overhaul of India’s fiscal architecture. The recom.....

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Avani Kapur

Blog

Deconstructing A New Era in Fiscal Devolution in India

The Accountability Initiative (AI) at CPR has conducted extensive research on fiscal devolution in two separate studies—one that focuses on the effects of the Fourteenth Finance Commission recommend.....

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Blog

Highlights from the Interim Budget 2014-15

This document highlights the key features of the interim budget 2014-15 that was released on 17th February, 2014. The final budget will be released post elections in July 2014. Please keep track of.....

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Blog

The Case of the Missing Records

If you have ever visited a government office, you would have been astounded (like I was) to see numerous files stacked in dingy offices, gathering dust. Yet, there often appeared to be a method to.....

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Avani Kapur

Blog

Highlights from the CAG Performance Audit of MGNREGA

Launched in 2005-06, the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act is Government of India’s most expensive flagship scheme costing Rs. 192322.33 crores since its launch.....

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Avani Kapur

Blog

How is Janani Suraksha Yojana performing in backward districts of India? - Part 2

As mentioned previously, this blog post discusses the findings from the PAHELI survey with respect to the JSY. 1. Institutional and home deliveries Out of 3178 deliveries, 48% deliveries took pl.....

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Blog

The Curious Case of Unspent Funds

Every year the week before and after the budget, debates across all media channels and civil society tend to focus on “allocations” – how much money has been allocated for Sarva Shiksha Abhiy.....

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Avani Kapur

Blog

For RTE grievances dial 1

An essential pre-requisite to any rights-based approach is the necessity of ensuring its enforceability. What does a citizen do in case their rights are violated or not adhered to? Who does one com.....

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Avani Kapur

Blog

'Air-ing' some statistics

With the monsoons finally here, most of us have been stuck in airports waiting in vain for flights that have been cancelled. The lucky few have had to endure only delayed flights. With that all-consum.....

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Blog

When the mirror has 2 faces: the story of governments own datasets not matching!

A few months back I was searching for release and expenditure data for Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA). Since the financial management section of the SSA portal hasn’t been updated in 2 years (the la.....

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Avani Kapur

Blog

Rants of a Public Finance Junkie

For the past few months, my colleague and I had been holed up at the National Institute of Public Finance and Policy (NIPFP), trying to “uncover” the wonderful world of state budgets. Our task.....

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Avani Kapur

Blog

Mis-Management or Missing Management

Over the last few years, India’s elementary education landscape has witnessed a lot of change. On the one hand, there has been a substantial increase in financial allocations. For instance, allocati.....

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Avani Kapur

Blog

A house for the homeless

  This article was published in One India One People magazine, June 2013 issue, available at: http://ww.....

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Avani Kapur

Blog

JNNURM - A Work in Progress

As India completes 60 years of being a republic, one can’t help but look around at our towns and cities and wonder where we are heading. And as a resident of Delhi, the first thought that comes t.....

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Avani Kapur

Blog

How data can mislead in analysing social policy

India needs a transformation in how data is measured and analysed to form policy First published in Business Standard Punditry on August 20, 2015 A visit to the Swachh Vidyalaya website.....

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Avani Kapur

Blog

Teachers: Overpaid or Overburdened?

I recently had the opportunity to interview 16 teachers from 7 schools across 2 districts in Uttarakhand as part of a study being conducted by J-PAL, MIT aimed at understanding the institutional dynam.....

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Avani Kapur

Blog

The Hungry Tide: Billions Spent and Millions Still Malnourished

The 16th of October was World Food Day– a day to take the pledge to “unite against hunger” (as this year’s theme goes). And this.....

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Avani Kapur

Publication

Changes in Open Defecation in Rural North India: 2014 - 2018

Here, we report results from a late 2018 survey that revisited households from the 2014 survey in four states: Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh. Although rural latrine ownership inc.....

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Publication

The Centralization vs Decentralisation Tug of War and the Emerging Narrative of Fiscal Federalism for Social Policy in India

This paper examines the relationship between fiscal federalism and social policy in India through an analysis of the effects of a recent effort to increase fiscal decentralization to state governments.....

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Publication

Unpacking the Processes of Open Defecation Free Status in Udaipur

This report is the culmination of a study conducted by the Accountability Initiative (AI) on Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin in 2017 on the request of the Udaipur district administration. The study unde.....

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Publication

Fiscal Transfers based on Inputs or Outcomes? Lessons from the Twelfth and Thirteenth Finance Commission in India

There is limited empirical evidence about the efficacy of fiscal transfers for a specific purpose, including for health which represents an important source of funds for the delivery of public service.....

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Publication

Trends in Public Expenditure on Elementary Education in India

Trends over the last 25 years suggest that nearly 80% of the social sector spending has come from state budgets. Taken together with other economic happenings in the country, the centre’s role in �.....

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Blog

How data can mislead in analysing social policy

India needs a transformation in how data is measured and analysed to form policy First published in Business Standard Punditry on August 20, 2015 A visit to the Swachh Vidyalaya website.....

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Avani Kapur

Publication

Power to the States: Making Fiscal Transfers Work

India embodies many perplexing contradictions in development. A middle-income country with a powerful diplomatic and economic presence at the global level, and citizens in business, science, and the a.....

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Blog

How much does India spend on Elementary Education?

The landscape of elementary education (EE) has changed dramatically in the last few years. It has been characterized by a concerted push to build physical and human infrastructure in government school.....

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Blog
Blog

Putting the Test to Test: An Analysis of NCERT's National Assessment Survey

The much awaited results of the 2012 National Achievement Survey (NAS) of Class III and Class VIII students are finally.....

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Avani Kapur

Publication

How Much Does India Spend Per Student on Elementary Education?

Recent years have seen significant changes in the landscape of elementary education (EE) in India. Yet, updated estimates on public and private expenditure on EE are not available. This paper provide.....

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Blog

Highlights from the Interim Budget 2014-15

This document highlights the key features of the interim budget 2014-15 that was released on 17th February, 2014. The final budget will be released post elections in July 2014. Please keep track of.....

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Blog

On Backwardness and Special Status – part 2

My previous blog (available here) had outlined the manner in which funds are transferred.....

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Avani Kapur

Publication

How Much Does India Spend Per Student on Education?

Recent years have seen significant changes in the landscape of elementary education (EE) in India. Yet, updated estimates on public and private expenditure on EE are not available. This paper fills th.....

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Publication

Achieving Transparency in Pro-poor Education Incentives

Book Chapter: Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan programme, Rajasthan, India in Achieving Transparency in Pro-poor Education Incentives edited by Muriel Poisson......

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Blog

Of Backwardness and Special Status- Part 1

The last few months has seen a clamour from states including Odisha and Bihar for receiving “Special Category Status” (SCS). Meanwhile, last week a panel headed by Raghuram Rajan released a new in.....

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Avani Kapur

Blog

Achieving Total Sanitation: Measuring the Problem

With elections around the corner an issue that seems to have caught everyone's attention is the poor state of sanitation in India. According to Census 2011 findings, only 30.7 percent of rural househo.....

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Avani Kapur

Blog

A house for the homeless

This article was published in One India One People magazine, June 2013 issue, available at: http://www.oneindi.....

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Avani Kapur

Blog

Highlights from the CAG Performance Audit of MGNREGA

Launched in 2005-06, the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act is Government of India’s most expensive flagship scheme costing Rs. 192322.33 crores since its launch.....

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Avani Kapur

Blog

Union Budget Speech 2013-14: Highlights from the Social Sector

Highlights for focal ministries: The Ministry of Rural Development has been allocated a total of Rs. 80,194 crore, which is an increase of as much as 46 percent from the.....

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Blog

Highlights from the Economic Survey 2012-13

General Trends in Social Sector Allocations: GOI expenditure on social services and rural development combined (Plan and.....

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Blog

How is Janani Suraksha Yojana performing in backward districts of India? - Part 2

As mentioned previously, this blog post discusses the findings from the PAHELI survey with respect to the JSY. 1. Institutional and home.....

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Blog

How is Janani Suraksha Yojana performing in backward districts of India? - Part 1

The Government of India (GoI) has ambitious plans “to transfer individual benefits from the Government directly into the bank accounts of beneficiaries”.....

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Publication

How is JSY Performing in Backward Districts of India?

With a view to reduce high levels of maternal and neonatal mortality, the National Rural Health Mission launched the Janani Suraksha Yojana in 2005. This is an innovative conditional cash transfer pro.....

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Publication

From Outlays to Outcomes

In 2012, the Government of India rechristened the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA), this was accompanied by a significant increase in allocations. The launch of the N.....

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Blog

For RTE grievances dial 1

An essential pre-requisite to any rights-based approach is the necessity of ensuring its enforceability. What does a citizen do in case their rights are violated or not adhered to? Who does one compla.....

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Avani Kapur

Blog

Malnutrition: A response to the Gujarat Chief Minister Based on the Data

Malnutrition in Gujarat has been in the news owing to the Chief Ministers’ comments in a recent newspaper .....

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Avani Kapur

Blog

The Case of the Missing Records

If you have ever visited a government office, you would have been astounded (like I was) to see numerous files stacked in dingy offices, gathering dust. Yet, there often appeared to be a method to the.....

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Avani Kapur

Blog

Rants of a Public Finance Junkie

For the past few months, my colleague and I had been holed up at the National Institute of Public Finance and Policy (NIPFP), trying to “uncover” the wonderful world of state budgets. Our task app.....

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Avani Kapur

Blog

'Air-ing' some statistics

With the monsoons finally here, most of us have been stuck in airports waiting in vain for flights that have been cancelled. The lucky few have had to en.....

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Blog

Field notes from Lucknow

Since May 20th, we have been in Lucknow participating in the ‘PAHELI’ workshop organized by PRATHAM. ‘PAHELI’- People’s Audit for Health, Edu.....

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Blog

Dating data - What are the characteristics of dream government data?

The lack of good quality government (GOI) data and the idiosyncrasies in whatever data that does exist is a recurring theme in office conversations and the blog during or just after the budget brief s.....

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Blog

Beyond Allocations: Expenditure Flows in Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan

On 28 February 2011, the Union Budget announced a 27 percent hike in allocations for elementary education for the 2011-12 financial year (FY). At 65 percent of the elementary education budget, the Sar.....

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Blog

Unpacking India’s Education Budget: PAISA 2010

India’s education budget more than doubled in the last five years.....

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Blog

A Curious Case of Missing Children- Or is it?

A recent report in the Times of India, UP’s 10 lakh ‘missing’ kids hint.....

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Blog

The Hungry Tide: Billions Spent and Millions Still Malnourished

The 16th of October was World Food Day– a day to take the.....

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Avani Kapur

Blog

When the mirror has 2 faces: the story of governments own datasets not matching!

A few months back I was searching for release and expenditure data for Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA). Since the financial management section of the SSA portal hasn’t been updated in 2 years (the lates.....

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Avani Kapur

Blog

UID: Thoughts from an Erstwhile Skeptic

Last month I attended a Consultation Workshop on the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI), now called AADHAR. With the first UID numbers being issued between August 2010 and February 2011,.....

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Avani Kapur

Blog

So Where's the Debate?

The Budget Session of Parliament has been on from February 22nd and will continue till May 7th , but with a little over a week left of the session, it begs the question – where has been the debate?.....

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Avani Kapur

Blog

The Curious Case of Unspent Funds

Every year the week before and after the budget, debates across all media channels and civil society tend to focus on “allocations” – how much money has been allocated for Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan?.....

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Avani Kapur

Blog

Show Me the Money – The trials and tribulations of finding budgetary data in India

Avani Kapur Every year on budget day, millions across the country tune into their television or radio-sets to hear the verdict of the budget. We want to know.....

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Avani Kapur

Blog

Teachers: Overpaid or Overburdened?

I recently had the opportunity to interview 16 teachers from 7 schools across 2 districts in Uttarakhand as part of a study being conducted by J-PAL, MIT aimed at understanding the institutional dynam.....

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Avani Kapur